James Bolton Stewart

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James Bolton Stewart (* 27. November 1882 in Philadelphia; † 1969) war ein US-amerikanischer Diplomat, der vom 12. Juni 1942 bis 4. Januar 1945 de:Botschafter der Vereinigten Staaten in Nicaragua war.

  • Er war der Sohn von Sarah Jane und James Stewart.
  • Seine Religion wird mit Presbyterianisch angegeben.
  • Von 1906 bis 1915 studierte er Ingenieurwissenschaft.[1]


  • Von 1915 bis 1917 war er US-Vizekonsul in Pernambuco,

Konsul in Chihuahua[Bearbeiten]

  • Von Februar 1918 bis 1922 war er US-Konsul in Chihuahua.

Das Konsulat war seit 1916 geschlossen, nachdem es während der mexikanischen Revolution mit Steinen beworfen worden war. Stewart hatte den Auftrag es wieder zu eröffnen. Am 12. Januar 1916 hatte sich das Massaker von es:Santa Isabel (Chihuahua) ereignet. Sechzehn junge amerikanische Bergbauingenieure wurden aus einem Zug in der Nähe von Santa Isabel im westlichen Teil des Bundesstaates Chihuahua geholt und von es:Martín López Aguirre, einem Anhänger von Pancho Villa, zur Strecke gebracht.[2] Am 4. September 1919 wurde Lopez wurde gefangen genommen und auf einem öffentlichen Platz der Stadt Chihuahua zur Strecke gebracht. [A 1] Stewart kam im Februar 1918 nach Chihuahua. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt war de: Pancho Villa ein gefährlicher Bandit mit einer Gefolgschaft einiger berittener Männer geworden. Sie plünderten Dörfer, hielten Züge an, entführten us-amerikanische Bergarbeiter, forderten Lösegeld und waren immer eine Bedrohung für die befestigte Stadt Chihuahua.[3]

  • Von 1924 bis 1937 war er in Tampico.
  • Von 1938 bis 1940 war er US-Generalkonsul in Mexiko-Stadt.

Generalkonsul in Zürich[Bearbeiten]

  • Am 2. März 1940 erhielt er de:Exequatur als US-Generalkonsul in Zürich.
Frankreich unter der Herrschaft des de:Vichy-Regimes
  • James David Mooney leitete vom 15. November 1922 bis 18. Juni 1940 den Bereich Übersee von General Motors.
  • Das Verhältnis von James David Mooney zum Beauftragten für die General Motors Werke in Belgien und Frankreich Eduard Winter kann als partnerschaftlich bezeichnet werden.
  • Im Februar 1941 nutzte Winter sein Visum für Südfrankreich, unter der Herrschaft des de:Vichy-Regimes, für eine Fluchthilfe nach Zürich.

Franklin D. Roosevelts Mann bei Anastasio Somoza García[Bearbeiten]

  • Von 12. Juni 1942 bis 14. April 1943 war er US-Gesandter in Nicaragua,
  • Von 14. April 1943 bis 4. Januar 1945 war er US- Außerordentlicher und bevollmächtigter Botschafter in Nicaragua.[5]
en:Pierre de Lagarde Boalen:List of ambassadors of the United States to Nicaragua
William Fletcher Warren


  1. The International Who's who, Europa Publications Limited, 1940, [1]
  2. en:The San Diego Union-Tribune, [2]
  3. James Bolton Stewart family letters, Collection 4072, 1901-1918, undated , en:Historical Society of Pennsylvania, [3]
  4. General Motors Corporation, The War Effort of the Overseas Division, General Motors Overseas Operations · 1944, S. 84[4][5][6][7]
  5. en:Office of the Historian[8]


  1. El 4 de septiembre de 1919 , con el grado de general , murió Martín en brazos de su jefe , amigo y casi su padre
  2. Prior to the war, France represented an automotive market of 200, 000 vehicles a year. The local manufacturing industry was fostered by the imposition of heavy tariffs which virtually excluded the importation of foreign makes. There persisted, nevertheless, a segment of the French market partial to General Motors trucks and to certain passenger-car chassis for mounting with French custom-built bodies. A modest General Motors assembly plant was justified in these circumstances , and this plant was operating when the war came in September 1939 . In addition to the 175 people employed in General Motors France's plant at Gennevilliers , near Paris , there were 110 engaged in manufacturing electrical accessories at A.C. Titan , a General Motors subsidiary located in nearby Clichy , and a personnel of 85 in the French Frigidaire operation . Soon after war was declared , the French military authorities requisitioned the plant in Gennevilliers and released many of our workmen from the Army in order that the assembly of urgently needed trucks might be resumed . Negotiations with the French Army Staff in Paris and their purchasing commission in New York brought an order for 2000 GMC trucks , while the Frigidaire Branch was called upon to equip naval units and the subterranean food lockers of the Maginot Line. A. C. Titan was likewise accredited as a supplier for the French armed forces and speeded up its production of spark plugs , fuel pumps and other accessories . The GMC trucks on order managed to get through to France early in 1940 , and 450 workmen on a twelve hour shift , seven days a week , were still assembling them at a rate of 60 a day on June 11th . The Germans entered Paris three days later. Supplementary orders for 7000 Chevrolet and GMC trucks and 480 portable Diesel generators sets never reached France. Negotiations for engine to power French Army tanks were cut short by the unparalleled speed of the German drive for the English channel ports . The trucks and much of the Diesel material were later transferred to the British Army . EVACUATION OF PERSONNEL When it became obvious that Paris would fall , plans were laid for evacuation of General Motors personnel.
    • One June 10th , the Gennevilliers plant received orders to evacuate in twenty - four hours.
    All men between the ages of eighteen and fortyeight , together with as much equipment as could be carried , were ordered transferred to a predetermined rendezvous at Marcilly - en - Villette , eighty miles south of the capital . All through that last night the employees worked feverishly to assemble as many as possible of the remaining 250 GMC trucks with which to move the maximum quantity of material out of danger of capture. The flight to Marcilly , eighty miles away , took sixteen hours . Four rows of cars and trucks inched their way south , spreading out into the adjoining fields as they went. Traffic was constantly interrupted by troops moving both north and south in great confusion. Over four hundred employees reached Marcilly , each with his family and a handbag of cherished belongings . All had escaped injury from German strafing along the route . All had had to be sheltered and fed . At Marcilly , most of the workmen were paid off and released, for the town proved unsafe because of the continual air raids. Six days later the remaining 118 General Motors employees were safely lodged in Limoges , where they were when the Franco - German armistice was signed on June 25 , 1940.
  3. Even more suggestive of such an arrangement was a letter from James B. Stewart , American chief counsel in Zürich, to Flecher Waren of the State Department containing the following report : Mr. Eduard Winter , formerly General Motors distributor in Berlin and at present this Company's representative in Paris , acts as courier in delivering communications from Mr. James D. Mooney , President of General Motors Overseas Cooperation, to high German officials in Paris. Mr. Winter has a special passport, which enables him to travel freely between occupied and unoccupied France. mr. Mooney is known to be in sympathy with the German Government and the persons who supplied this information believe that the General Motors official ist transmitting information of a confidential nature through Mr. Winter (Steward to Warren, February 5, 1941, released under a Freedom of Information requested from the State Department) Glenn Yago, Director of Capital Studies Glenn Yago, The Decline of Transit: Urban Transportation in German and U.S. Cities, 1900, S. 38 f.